Crystalline and Amorphous Solids: Major Differences
The Earth consists of many elements, but the three main elements are solid, liquid and gaseous state. These three states are omnipresent everywhere. The solid will be the soil, mountains, rocks, the land, etc. The liquid will be water, an essential element for the survival of humans and gaseous consists of the oxygen required for breathing, hydrogen, nitrogen, etc. The solid-state can be further divided into two parts: Crystalline and Amorphous.
Crystalline and Amorphous state depends upon the structural orientation. The arrangement of the particles depends upon the geometry if it is definite or indefinite. Crystalline and Amorphous are both solid, but there is a consecutive difference between them.
Let us Distinguish between crystalline and amorphous solid and know more about these elements.
Difference between Crystalline and Amorphous Solid
Crystalline and Amorphous are two important parts of the Solid-state. The structure of any solid depends if it is crystalline in nature or Amorphous in nature.
It is common to get confused between these two terms; hence, this difference will help you to understand Crystalline and Amorphous solid in a better way.
|SL.NO||POINT OF DIFFERENCE||CRYSTALLINE SOLID||AMORPHOUS SOLID|
|1||Definition||Crystalline Solid follows a solid geometry. They have a uniform intermolecular force, which helps to bind the particles together in the same pattern.||Amorphous Solid does not follow any definite pattern or geometry. They have a shorter range order, and they are arranged irregularly.|
|2||Melting Point||They have a very high melting point as the molecules are very closely packed hence not very easy to break.||They have a very low melting point due to their irregular arrangement of inner particles. Hence, they break easily.|
|3||Surface||Like crystals, the crystalline surface has a very clean surface; hence, they can be cut with a knife with precision.||The surface is not very smooth of Amorphous solids, and it cannot be cut with perfect precision. It has non-uniform cuts.|
|4||Rigidity||Crystallines are very strong and rigid solid, as they have a strong intermolecular force that binds them together.||Amorphous are not very rigid. It can break easily with just one blow due to its irregular structure.|
|5||Heat of Fusion||It has a high heat of fusion as it is not easy to break the intermolecular force.||It has a low heat of fusion.|
|6||External Form||The external or outside form of the Crystalline is very strong due to its regular structure arrangement.||The external form is not very strong in the case of amorphous solid due to its irregular arrangement of structure.|
|7||Type of solids||It is truly solid as it remains in a solid state.||It is pseudo solid as it can be available in a supercooled liquid state.|
|8||Isotropy of the solids||Crystalline is anisotropic as it does not possess the same physical properties in every direction.||Amorphous isotropic as it shows the same physical properties in every direction.|
|9||Examples||Ice, sugar, diamond, etc.||Rubber, gel, plastic, etc.|
Applications of Crystalline solids
Crystalline solids are used in different industries for various purposes. Here are some of the Crystalline solid applications:
- As crystalline solids are very shiny by nature, these are used as jewellery, like a diamond is one of the expensive solids available. It is used to make rings, earrings, necklaces, bracelets, etc.
- Quartz, another important crystalline solid, is used in various manufacturing of watches and clocks. It is also used in the refractory and petroleum industry.
- Various other crystalline solids are used in various industries to serve different purposes.
What makes Crystalline Solid Anisotropic?
CrystellineSplids may have a strong molecular force and good material binding but due to their uniform arrangement. The regular particles and the ordered direction at all the points result in the anisotropy of the crystalline solids.
Hence, these are not good at conducting electricity or refractive index as the physical property of the solid is very different along any side of the solid surface. Therefore, resulting in the anisotropy of the crystalline solids.
Application of Amorphous solids
We can see the applications of Amorphous materials in our day to day lives. Some of the applications are as follows:
- Polymer is one of the Amorphous Solids widely used to make pipes, medicines, raw materials and many more. It is an important component that is applied in various fields as it is sturdy.
- Rubber is also used in various industries. It is used to make shoes, rubber bands, tires, ropes, and raw ingredients in many industries.
- Silicon, an Amorphous Solid, is used in photovoltaics to capture sunlight rays and convert them to electricity or store them to be used as electricity.
- Glass is also used in various food industries, construction, packaging and many other industries. It is used in the delivery of materials. It is one of the important Amorphous solids which is used in almost every industry.
- Plastic is used in every industry. It is used in the packaging industry to pack food, the delivery industry to manufacture delivery materials, and almost every small shop as plastic bags.
Why is Amorphous called pseudo solid?
Unlike Crystalline Solids, Amorphous Solids do not have a regular structure. It does not have a three-dimensional long-range or ordered structure that tends together to give a good shape. Amorphous solids tend to flow like a liquid but in a very slow state, which may take up a lot of time.
Due to this phenomenon, Amorphous solids are known as pseudo solids or supercooled liquids.
Through this article, we learnt a lot about Crystalline Solids and Amorphous Solids. We could note down the major difference between these two solids and learn about their various applications and different industries. The two solids are very important in our daily lives.
It is used to make simple materials that have a great value and without which we cannot survive. Like pipes made with polythene, it is important to transport water so that we can use it, like that many other solids are used.
Hence, we need to learn more about these solids to gain more knowledge.